When on October 5, , the Germans secretly contacted the President in hopes of negotiating an armistice on the basis of the Fourteen Points, Washington exchanged notes with Berlin for several weeks without even informing the Allies. He had promised open covenants openly arrived at, but the treaty was a diktat hammered out by the British, French, and Americans and foisted on the Germans. The infamous war-guilt clause, inserted at the beginning of the draconian sections on German reparations, was inspired by American legalism, which required that damages be awarded as if in a civil tort case.
That not only crippled German democracy, but undermined the very legitimacy of the treaty once revisionist historians began to argue that all the European Great Powers shared more or less guilt for the outbreak of the war.
The other principles promised by Wilson, such as disarmament, economic opportunity, freedom of the seas, and self-determination, were either ignored or, if denied, denied to Germany alone. He should not have appointed a delegation composed exclusively of Democrats especially since Republicans had captured the Senate in the mid-term elections of He should not have promised an impossible new world order sure to disillusion public opinion, not least his own avid supporters, who predictably recoiled when the peace terms were published in May The Treaty of Versailles subjects all liberalism and particularly that kind of liberalism which breathes the Christian spirit to a decisive test.
If a war which was supposed to put an end to war culminates without strenuous protest by humane men and women in a treaty of peace which renders peace impossible, the liberalism which preached this meaning for the war will have committed suicide. Having been forced to make serial concessions to British, French, Italian, and Japanese nationalists, Wilson refused to accommodate American nationalists.
When Senator Lodge placed 12 Reservations to the Treaty of Versailles before the Senate as conditions for its advice and consent, the President rejected them and insisted that Democratic Senators do likewise. So he launched a national tour to stump for the League, collapsed, suffered a stroke, and lived out his term an invalid.
Wilson did not make the world safe for democracy. It might even be argued that his hapless policies toward Russia made the world safe for communism. Historian Michael Kazin, who has just published a book on the antiwar movement that Wilson betrayed in , asked, in a New York Times op-ed on the centenary of the conflict, how it might have ended had America stayed out. Wrote Kazin:. If the Allies, led by France and Britain, had not won a total victory, there would have been no punitive peace like that completed at Versailles, no stab-in-the-back allegations by resentful Germans, and thus no rise, much less triumph, of Hitler and the Nazis.
The next world war, with its 50 million deaths, would probably not have occurred. We have to face the fact that there is something deeply and authentically American about Wilsonianism. After the Soviet Union went poof, our elites even imagined the United States a benevolent hegemon policing a new world order through militarism and globalization. But I predict that Trump will be no more willing or able than Barack Obama to break the spell Wilson cast on the nation years ago.
Is it possible to distill that incantation down to its essence?
- President Woodrow Wilson Essays - Words | Bartleby?
- Secondary Navigation;
- indiana state university thesis.
- expository essay on love;
- mosaics focusing on essays.
- Woodrow Wilson: the Academic Man | VQR Online.
Rereading an old book of essays on religion and history recently, I stumbled on the following passage:. Man is not content merely to study history. The ego will not be satisfied with this, because the ego in its unredeemed or natural state is not able to see history apart from itself. The ego is the center of creation; history, therefore, has no meaning outside its own understanding. Thinking that it is the creator, the ego drives toward the reduction of history in order to assimilate and master history. What occurs when this takes place is that the ego compels its finite mind to reduce the infinite to finiteness, in order that the mind may understand, control, and use the infinity that is history.
These are the thoughts of none other than Arthur Link, the Princeton professor who devoted his whole career to the sanctification of Woodrow Wilson. See also Malcolm D.
Woodrow Wilson in Perspective
Many editorialists scoffed at the absurdity of the German proposal, and public uproar over it quickly subsided; it was not mentioned as a casus belli even after the U. See also Justus D. McDougall, The Tragedy of U. Neiberg, in The Path to War: How the First World War Created Modern America Oxford University, , argues instead that American opinion at large had grown increasingly alarmed about the national security threat that a victorious Germany would mount.
I disagree, but even if he is correct, that would seem to imply that the President ought to have argued for belligerence on realist grounds as Theodore Roosevelt always recommended. Graham, Jr. Heath and Company, , pp. Graham mentions as plausible the sorts of prohibitions against American trade, investment, and travel that Congress later enacted in the s Neutrality Acts. The New Republic cited in John A. As a condition of the Armistice, the Germans had to renounce the annexationist Treaty of Brest-Litovsk they had made with the Bolshevik regime and evacuate western Russia.
Second, the U. Walter A. McDougal is a professor of history and international relations at the University of Pennsylvania. About the Author. Read More. The closing reference to Donald Trump warns the current administration and its supporters to sustain their focus on U. My congratulations to Richard Reinsch for selecting this outstanding panel and thanks to the commentators for their fair and insightful reviews. Wilson was not only a fool but a progressive socialist with an enormous ego and the kind of self righteousness that gets thousands of people killed.
President Woodrow Wilson Essays
In the end,by his acts, he not only changed history for the worse but helped lay the groundwork for the destruction of the American Republic. The Income Tax,the Federal Reserve central bank and the 17th Amendment all occurred during his watch. In the end,Wilson was only a puppet of the International bankers who needed America in the War to collect the loans given to the allies who were on the verge of bankruptcy and about to either lose the war or having to settle for a negotiated peace.
We are still paying the price today. The money interests clearly ruled the decisions made! Jerry, Wilson had nothing to do with the 17th Amendment as it was proposed by the 62nd Congress in , and approved in Similarly The history of income taxation in the United States began in the 19th century with the imposition of income taxes to fund war efforts.
However, the constitutionality of income taxation was widely held in doubt [Pollock v. Get your facts and history right! Wrong again. We are entertained throughout the article with the power and accomplishments?
As noted by previous commentors, the glaring omission in the article of the overarching bankster provocations which brought about the war lend little credence to an otherwise thoughtful piece. However, as of today, I think that it would have been appropriate to implement a naval blockade and the war itself should have been fought with paying for mercenaries. Moreover, the Kaiser was stupid. His invasion of the Low Countries is what brought Great Britain in.
His government must have known that his invasion of everywhere except the Netherlands in the Low Countries was opposed to at least 70 years of British foreign policy. Rather, the great evil was that German unification was not reversed. The French were right that Germany should have been smashed back into a cacophony of principalities. Even today, a re-united Germany is a threat to free societies everywhere. Because a strong and united Germany could and did lay them waste.
The second great error was not strangling in the crib, the German appointed Bolshevik regime in Russia. But there still would have been the destruction of Great Britain, which Baroness Thatcher arrested and partly reversed. I once asked another H. And so it goes. And it was even worse than Prof. McDougall details above. Would the War in the Pacific have been initiated by a Japan confident in the steady supply of American petroleum and other materials.
Japan was already on the road to conquest, regardless of U. Pacification never stops dictators. The argument runs that at least since the days of Marlborough, Britain pivoted between France and Prussia in order to prevent either from dominating Northern Europe. There were serious British commercial and maritime interests at stake in not playing second string to either France or Germany. Probably by , Wilson was convinced that his country shared the same interests.
The more interesting question is that, were it not for the presidential election, would Wilson have intervened earlier? I do not see Wilson as a balance of power man. I think that he really did have a child like belief in the benignity of democracy. There is an element of truth that democracies are not easy governments to go to war. But basically Wilson thought that there was a collective interest in peace that would be embraced by the electorate in democracies.
I think the theory of collective security is bunkum. But I think Wilson was sincere in his impractical thinking. What Wilson saw and remember, like Brandeis J. The misstatement so often linked to Chaos Theory is that there is little cause and effect in the universe and, therefore, there is no God. I reject this, as I once got as far into the writings of Chaos Theory as my limited mathematics could lead me and discovered Fractals. That clinched me — the evolved understanding of Bell Lab scientist Mandelbrot — lead me to realize that the cause and effect — the patterns — of the universe are systematized.
This is my take on the introductory contextual section of this quite interesting article, here, and, if I am in error, maybe someone will help to educate me. Germany proposed in the Zimmerman Telegram the dissolution of the United States as part of their war ends. Going to war against Germany, which had repeatedly violated the Hague Convention in use of poison gas and submarine war, was absolutely mandatory for any president with a spine. Zimmerman Telegram was the last straw. Germany verified its authenticity in March , and US declared war in April So, it fed into the image of the German Huns gone wild.
So, the Lusitania was not the tipping point that the Zimmerman Telegram was. The new industrial might of the US was able to greatly profit from these Allied arms sales, while the US proclaimed its neutrality. US agriculture was also able to profit from selling food and fiber products. Understandable that Germany would not be happy with the US playing the false neutrality game.
Our ability to contribute in was nil. We were not a strategic presence on the battlefield. When the Kaiserschlacht petered out in , the German Army was spent. They had shot their last bolt, and had no way to stop the British onslaught. By the time the Armistice was signed, the German Army was nothing but a hollow shell. If the war had gone on another three months, we would have seen unconditional surrender of Germany.
If the Allies had occupied Germany, and preferably partitioned her into four independent states, there would have been no Hitler and no WW-II. Of course, we might have wound up at war with the USSR in Somehow, you can never avoid the washback from your ripples. With millions of German troops freed from the Eastern Front, a breakthrough on the Western front certainly seemed possible, if not entirely likely, and I think it has been convincingly argued that the injection of U. I may be appalled by the decision to take the U. What is Moral Diplomacy?
The purpose of business case studies.
Aqa media studies a level coursework. Diplomacy By Henry Kissinger Essay - Words - provide the students with the student worksheet diplomacy graphic organizer. Does the UN still have a moral role to play in the world?
Aeon Essays lecture or document series: students now need to connect the forms of diplomacy with the people who created them and the instances in which they were used. Remaking the World: Progressivism and American Foreign Policy diplomacy is a form of diplomacy proposed by us president woodrow wilson in his election.
Gsce statistics coursework.